In January 2015, the Base Lending Rate (BLR) structure was replaced with a new Base Rate (BR) system. Under BR, which now serves as the main reference rate for new retail floating rate loans, banks in Malaysia can determine their interest rate based on a formula set by the central bank.
Under the previous BLR, the rate was set by Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) based on how much it costs to lend money to other financial institutions. Meanwhile, the cost to borrow money was determined by the Overnight Policy Rate (OPR) set by the central bank.
With the new BR, which came into effect on January 2, 2015, interest rates are determined by the banks’ benchmark cost of funds and Statutory Reserve Requirement (SRR). Other components of loan pricing such as borrower credit risk, liquidity risk premium, operating costs and profit margin will be reflected in a spread in the new BR framework.
Why the change?
Instead of a fixed rate under BLR, BR is determined by banks without intervention by the central bank and should differ from bank to bank depending on their own efficiencies in lending. Banks with a strong niche in consumer financing such as Maybank and Public Bank will have the initial edge of being able to offer more attractive and competitive BR and effective lending rates (ELR) for their customers.
The new framework encourages greater transparency from banks and will enable customers to make better financial decisions. Previously, calculations of BLR lacked transparency and some banks were lending below the BLR to attract customers and boost loan growth. Under the new system, customers cannot borrow below the base rate.
Figures are accurate as of August 6, 2020.
BNM also provides the financing rates of Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.
How does it affect you?
The change towards the new framework should have minimum impact on borrowers. Take the rates offered by Maybank for example.
With the BR system, the bank will have to reveal its base rate and also disclose its margin, which will determine the ELR. Maybank has set its Base Rate (BR) at 1.75%. Here, interest is presented as “base rate +1.50%”, which means that the effective rate that the customer will have to pay on the mortgage is 3.25%.
Ultimately, it’s the ELR that will determine how much you will have to pay for your mortgage.
Loans that are already approved and extended prior to January 2, 2015 will still follow the old BLR until the end of the loan tenure.
For new loan applicants and refinancing applicants, the new BR framework will have a direct impact on interest rates with effect from the date. Banks are still required to display both BLR and BR on their branches and websites.
How has BR affected banks so far?
So far, it has been business as usual for banks and mortgage providers because the change from BLR to BR has not altered the effective lending rates significantly. So when it comes to actual interest rates, consumers are still paying pretty much the same thing on the BR as they did with the BLR.
Some experts predicted that the switch from BLR to BR will create better transparency and consequently, greater competition among banks to provide a wider range of options for loan applicants.
According to BNM, the new reference rate will also better reflect changes in cost arising from monetary policy and market funding conditions, while encouraging greater discipline and efficiency among financial institutions in the pricing of retail financing products.
Also, because the base rates are managed by individual banks, this will compel banks to come up with more cost-efficient rates to compete with each other and create a much more competitive market.
However, given the flexibility to determine their respective benchmark rates, smaller institutions may risk losing out on the race of getting more borrowers for loans.
Bigger establishments will have more room to manoeuver when determining the reference rates, whereas smaller institutions may not have as much leeway to offer competitive rates. However, loan rates will still depend on the management’s risk appetite at the end of the day.
However, just like BLR, the BR can fluctuate and that can make it difficult for consumers to set a budget in the long term.
The previous BLR changes according to the overnight policy rate (OPR), which is being determined by the central bank from time to time. The current BR on the other hand, is dependent on the banks’ benchmark cost of funds and liquidity, and can be reviewed by banks anytime even if there are no changes in OPR.
The borrower’s credit risk also determines the amount of interest he or she will have to pay. If the bank categorises the loan borrower as high risk (from having a bad credit score), he or she will likely have to pay a higher interest rate, so it is important to plan ahead and set your finances straight before applying for a mortgage.
Has BR affected consumer demand for property?
The BR system may actually benefit customers as a more transparent reference rate will enable them to make better money choices when it comes to navigating an array of loan products offered by various financial institutions.
Customers with a higher risk profile such as those with bad credit, low income or poor employment histories will enable the bank to set the ELR higher and make a more profitable net interest margin (NIM). However, this could result in potentially higher default rates in the future.
Home buyers can keep ahead with the rates (new and old) by comparing all the best home loan rates from the banks before making a decision on which loan to apply for. By doing thorough and adequate research, you can remove some of the intimidation factor from the home-buying process.
This article was originally published on January 6, 2015 and has been updated with current information.